Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A., Italy’s Public Broadcaster,
was officially established on August 27th, 1924 as URI, Unione
Radiofonica Italiana (Italian
Radio Union). URI was set up by Radiofono, wich held
85% of the capital and was controlled by the Marconi company,
and Sirac (Societa'
Italiana Audizioni Circolari). Two
months later, (October 6th, 1924) in Rome, URI started a
regular sevice limited to some hours of evening programs.
On April 9th, 1926 URI and SIRAC founded the Societa' Italiana
Pubblicita' Radiofonica Anonima (SIPRA, Italian Society for
December 1927, the URI became the EIAR, Ente Italiano Audizioni
company for radio auditions).
On June 30th, 1931 Società
Idroelettrica Piemonte (SIP, Hydroelectrical
Piedmontese Society) took full control of SIPRA and on
July 11th, 1931 the Goverment awarded EIAR with an exclusive
radio concession for a period of 25 years. In
1933 SIP became
the largest shareholder of EIAR and some years later
IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale S.p.A.)
became the owner of SIP. On
October 26th, 1944 the EIAR became the RAI (Radio Audizioni
Italia) and on November 3rd, 1946 radio programming was
divided between two networks: "Rete Azzurra" and "Rete
1949, television tests began and on September 15, ERI was
created. In 1950 RAI
participated in the creation of the Union Européenne
de Radiodiffusion (UER) (Radiobroadcasting European Union) and
on October 1st, 1950 RAI's cultural radio channel, Terzo
Programma Radiofonico, was launched. On
January 26, 1952 the government gave to RAI the exclusivity
of radio, TV and cable broadcasting until December 15th,
Company´s Direction-General moved to Rome. The management
central directions remained in Turin. In
1954 IRI became the major shareholder and on
April 10, 1954 R.A.I.
became RAI Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A.
started VHF regular television service on January 3, 1954
and in January 1957 RAI's coverage spread throughout the
entire national territory. On November 4, 1961 RAI's Second
National Channel was born reaching 52% of the population
and in 1975 the Italian Parlament approved a new law to reform
the RAI. February 1, 1977 marks the beginning of color broadcasting
(PAL) in Italy and that same year the Constitutional Court
ended RAI´s monopoly. On December 15, 1979 RAI's Third
Channel started its transmissions on a national and regional
basis reaching 45% of the population. In 1995, RAI established
the RAI International Channel to promote the diffusion of
its programs abroad and in 1997 RAI launched RAI Educational.
In February 1998 GRParlamento was launched and RAI News24
started in April 1999. Also in 1999 RAI created a new business
unit known as Divisione Trasmissione e Diffusione (DTD) (Broadcasting
Division) and set up
"NewCo TD" which was subsequently renamed RaiWay
S.p.A. RAI Sport was launched in February 2000 and
in that same year RAI assigned
to RaiWay the DTD technical assets and staff. On March 1,
2000 RaiWay started its activities.
national radio networks: Radio Uno, Radio Due and Radio
thematic radio networks: GRParlamento, an Institutional
Information Radio Channel which offers listeners direct
information on the work of the Chamber of Deputies and
the Senate and analysis of the political activities, and
Isoradio, a public utility channel which is addreesed to
motorists and those who travel.
national television networks: RAI Uno, RAI Due and RAI
International. Created in 1994, it broadcasts Italian language
radio and television channels around the world.
free to air satellite channels: RAI News24 (24 hours
of local and international news), RAI Sport, RAI Educational,
RaiMed and RaiLab.
subscription channels: RaiSat Album (archive footage), RaiSat
Art, RaiSat Cinema, RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (gastronomy
and wine), RaiSat Ragazzi (children/youth) and RaiSat Show
which were launched on July 1st, 1999 and RaiSat Fiction
which was launched March 1st, 2001.
National Symphony Orchestra which was founded in 1931.
which carries RAI´s publishing operations.
RAI Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. Group includes the following
in 1998 it develops, operates and distributes RAI´s
subscription satellite channels. RAI owns 94.9%, RCS Editori
owns 5% and Rai Trade has a 0.10% stake.
- Società Italiana Pubblicità per Azioni
April 9th, 1926 it´s Rai´s advertising
sales company. SIPRA is a wholly owned subsidiary of RAI.
is the American subsidiary of RAI and
it´s located in New York with offices in South
America and Canada. It was established
in 1960 as an operational base for the production of segments
of RAI programs, aired in Italy, and for the international
distribution of Italian programs. Today, RAI Corporation
supplies a variety of services to all departments of RAI,
including the production of news and entertainment programs,
distribution, acquisition, sales and marketing research. Rai
Corporation - Italian Radio Television System is a wholly
owned subsidiary of RAI. Rai Corporation owns 100% of Rai
was created in January 1998. Headquartered in Rome with
a subsidiary office in Milan, the company incorporates
three of RAI´s former autonomous sales departments: SACIS
- S.p.A. Commerciale Iniziative Spettacolo (sales
and distribution arm) closed down in 1998, Nuova
Fonit Cetra S.p.A. (music
division) and Nuova Eri - Edizioni RAI Radiotelevisione
Italiana S.p.A. (publishing
division) and is engaged in the sales and marketing of
all other RAI products, including its pay -TV bouquets,
merchandise and multimedia packages.
Rai Trade is a wholly owned subsidiary of RAI. SACIS, Fonit
and Nuova Eri were wholly owned subsidiaries of RAI S.p.A. until
they were transferred in 1998. SACIS - S.p.A. Commerciale Iniziative
Spettacolo and Nuova Eri - Edizioni RAI Radiotelevisione Italiana
S.p.A. (founded in 1949) are wholly owned subsidiaries of RAI Trade.
Fonit Cetra S.p.A. is owned by Warner Music Italia S.p.A.
(90%) and RAI Trade (10%). It
was created in 1957 from the merger between FONIT
(Fonodisco Italiano Trevisan), founded in 1927, and Cetra
(Compagnia Edizioni, Teatro, Registrazioni, Affini), founded
in 1933, to form Fonit Cetra. Fonit Cetra was acquired by
SIP at the end of the 50s and in 1970 it was transferred
to RAI. In 1987 it suffered a restructuration and it was
transformed to Nuova Fonit Cetra S.p.A. (12499 shares were
owned by RAI and one by the Bacchini family). Between 1992
and 1995 Ricordi held 10% of the capital and in 1995 it suffered
a new restructuring.
is responsible for the Group´s transmission, signal
distribution and broadcasting operations. RAI has a 99.99926%
stake in it and Rai Trade 0.00074%.
was created in December 1999 and started its operations on
June 1st, 2000. It is involved in Cinema production and distribution
and handles the purchasing of rights. In June 2001, RaiCinema
in partnership with Vivendi-Universal founded 01 Rai Cinema
& Studio Canal Distribution S.r.l. in which each partner
holds a 50% stake. RAI has a 99.10% stake in RAI Cinema and
Rai Trade has a 0.90% stake.
a TV on-demand venture set up in 2001 by RAI (60%) and e.BisMedia
S.p.A., a wholly owned subsidiary of e.Biscom S.p.A., (40%),
which offers information, entertainment and services on broadband.
The Rai has made available more than 10,000 hours of programmes
from its archives and current TV schedules and the e.Biscom
group contributes its infrastructures and technological knowhow.
in 2000, it owns and operates the Group's activities in new
on June 23th, 1999 it´s aimed to implement new television
formats. RAI owns 99.9% and Rai Trade 0.10%.
in June 1999, it operates the Rai.it website and is aiming
at developing the Company’s role in the new interactive
services industry. RaiNet S.p.A. is owned by RAI NewMedia
(99.90%) and Rai Trade (0.10%).
Sport Set S.p.A.
a joint venture with RCS, the major Italian publishing group,
in which each company helds a 50% stake. The new media segment
is controlled by the sub-holding company RAI NewMedia.
Marino RTV S.p.A.
the Public Broadcaster of the Republic of San Marino. RAI
has a 50% stake.
– Servizi Contabili e Fiscali S.r.l.
- RSM owns 95% of SCF S.r.l.
Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. shareholders are RAI Holding
S.p.A (99.55%) and SIAE - Società Italiana degli Autori
ed Editori (0.45%). RAI Holding S.p.A., owned by the Ministry
of the Treasury, was founded on November 7th, 2000 and on
January 17th, 2001 RAI´s main shareholder, IRI, transferred
its stake to RAI Holding S.p.A.. RAI has 23 regional centers
and four main production centers with 14.123 employees (31.12.2000).